We have developed the use of small format digital cameras for aerial-point-sampling (APS), a method developed by Dr Mike Norton-Griffiths in the 1980's to estimate crop cover and land use1.    Using APS and dot-grid analysis, we assess over 20 crop types, including:

  • Staple subsistence crops:  Maize, beans, cassava, rice, banana
  • Supplementary subsistence crops:   Sweet potato, groundnuts, sorghum, millet
  • Cash crops:  Tobacco, sunflower, cocoa, sugar cane, cotton, sisal, horticulture
  • Agro-forestry: Plantation forestry, woodlot, orchard
  • Access and fallow:  Fallow, field dividers, access roads
  • Settlement:  Rural, compound, tin-roof, grass-roof,
  • Natural Vegetation: Forest, riparian forest, bushland, grassland, wetland

Our clients include: 

2012:  International Centre for Research in Agro-Forestry (ICRAF):  Land Use of Kenya Lake Victoria Basin, and Makueni and Kiambu Districts.  See article:

Marshall, M., Norton-Griffiths, M., Herr, H., Lamprey, R.H., Sheffield, J., Vagen, T., and Okotto-Okotto, J. (2017)  Continuous and consistent land use/cover change estimates using socio-ecological data, Earth Systems Dynamics, 8, 55-73, doi:10.5194/esd-8-55-2017, 2017.

2005: Uganda Bureau of Statistics and Belgian Technical Cooperation (BTC):   Aerial land Use Survey of Four Districts of Uganda,

1:  Norton-Griffiths, M. (1988)  Aerial point sampling for land use surveys.  Journal of Biogeography 15: 149-156

APS survey flight diagram, Murang'a and Machakos, 2013 Commercial rice and smallholding agriculture, Kisumu, 2013Ground-truthing APS crop interpretation, Eldoret, 2013